Gene superfamily: actins; (ACTA1 ACTA2 ACTA3 ACTA4 @ACTB @ACTG ACTL1 ACTL3 ACTL4 ACTL5)


[1] There are over 20 actin-like sequences in the human genome. Six are coding genes; of them, four are alpha-actin genes, encoding the cardiac muscle (GEM:15q14/ACTA4), skeletal muscle (GEM:01q42/ACTA1), vascular smooth muscle (GEM:10q2/ACTA2), and intestine smooth muscle (GEM:02p131/ACTA3) alpha-actins; and three are cytoskeletal beta-actin (GEM:07p22/ACTB) and gamma-actin (GEM:17q25/ACTG1).
[2] Nine processed beta-actin pseudogenes (ACTBP/1-9), eight gamma-actin pseudogenes, and four other actin-like sequences (ACTL/1,3,4,5) of undetermined type are mapped (note that ACTL2 was identified as the second gamma-actin pseudogene ACTGP2 mapped to chr Yq11). On the other hand, both gamma pseudogenes, mapped to Chrs 3 and Y and sequenced by Gomez-Pedrozo-1987, differ from gamma pseudogene described by Leube-1986. The HUGEN includes this third gamma pseudogene as unmapped (GEM:00.0/ACTGP3). Emi-1988 described the fourth gamma pseudogene, which overlaps with the coding region of salivary amylase gene AMY1 and has been localized to the short arm of Chr 1 (GEM:01p21/ACTGP4). It remains unclear, which of actin-like sequences identified (e.g., ACTL4 in Chr 3) actually differ from already mapped beta and gamma pseudogenes.
[3] MIM registered (without description) an unidentified yet platelet actin (MIM:102570). It was registered on the basis of data about encoding of the cardiac and platelet actins by different genes (Elzinga-1976). However, the authors arguments are hardly convincing."


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FAG "Ponte P &: Mol Cell Biol, 3, 1783-1791, 1983